Kto12 Basic Education Program
The development of Kto12 Program has been made possible by the
collaborative efforts of members of the Steering Committee which is
composed of DepED, CHED, TESDA and other stakeholders. These include
other government agencies, private sector, civil society organizations,
associations of public and private schools, Senate, House of
Representatives, PTAs, teachers organizations, student organizations and
other individuals who are committed to improving the quality of
Enhancing the quality of basic education in the Philippines is urgent and critical.
Education outcomes in terms of participation, completion and achievement rates attest to this urgent need.
poor quality of basic education is reflected in the low achievement
scores of Filipino students in the National Achievement Test and
international tests like TIMSS.
reason behind this is that students do not get adequate instructional
time or time on task. This is partly due to the congested curriculum.
The current 10-year basic education curriculum is designed to be taught
in 12 years.
has been affirmed in the study conducted by SEAMEO-Innotech where it
noted that Philippine basic education is congested compared to the
curriculum of Brunei Darussalam, Malaysia and Singapore. Specifically,
it stated that elementary education is congested especially in
Mathematics, Languages and Sciences.
high school graduates are not adequately prepared for the world of
work. Most of the basic education graduates are too young to legally
enter the labor force (below 18). This implies that those who will not
go to college would either be unemployed or be vulnerable to
exploitative labor practices. Those who may be interested to set up
businesses cannot legally enter into contracts.
high school graduates are not adequately prepared to pursue higher
education. They still have to undergo remedial and high school level
classes in colleges and universities.
10-year basic education cycle hinders the recognition of Filipino
professionals abroad. The Washington Accord prescribes 12-years of basic
education as an entry to recognition of engineering professionals. The
Bologna Process also requires 12 years of education for university
admission and practice of profession in European countries.
Philippines is the only country in Asia and among the three remaining
countries in the world that has a 10-year basic education cycle (Table
Table 1. Comparative Data on Duration of Basic and Pre-University Education in Asia
the Department of Education in collaboration with various government
and non-government stakeholders has developed the K to 12 Program which
aims to improve basic education in the Philippines.
The Kto12 basic education program seeks to enhance the quality of basic education
- Kto12 means Kindergarten and the 12 years of elementary and secondary education. Kindergarten
refers to the 5-year old cohort who undergoes a standardized Kinder
curriculum. Elementary education refers to primary schooling that
involves 6 years of education (Grades 1-6) while secondary education
refers to four years of junior high school (Grades 7-10 or HS Year 1-4)
and two years of senior high school (Grades 11-12 or HS Year 5-6).
basic education is a right of every Filipino, therefore this is
provided by government for free in public schools. Those who go through
the 12-year program will get an elementary diploma (6 years), a junior
high school diploma(4 years), and a senior high school diploma (2
years). A full 12 years of basic education will eventually be required
for entry into tertiary level education (entering freshmen by SY
2018-2019 or seven years from now).
- The implementation of the K to 12 program will be phased (Figure 1). Universal
kindergarten was offered starting SY 2011-2012. By SY 2012-2013, the
new curriculum will be offered to incoming Grade 1 as well as to
incoming junior high school students (Grade 7 or HS Year 1). The target
of DepED is to put in place the necessary infrastructure and other
arrangements needed to provide Senior High School (SHS) education by SY
Figure 1. Schematic implementation plan of Kto12
The societal and individual benefits of Kto12 program outweighs its costs
To Individuals and Families
enhanced curriculum will decongest academic workload, giving students
more time to master competencies and for co-curricular activities and
community involvement, thus, allowing for a more holistic development.
will possess competencies and skills relevant to the job market. They
will attain Certificate of Proficiency, Certificate of Competency or
National Certification in their areas of specialization.
- Graduates will be better prepared for higher education.
education is affordable. The cost to households of the additional two
years in high school will be lower compared to a two year college
- The potential annual earnings of a Kto12 graduate will be higher compared to the earnings of a 10-year high school graduate.
- Graduates will now be recognized abroad.
For the Society and the Economy
will contribute to economic growth. Several studies have shown that
improvements in the quality of education will increase GDP growth by as
much as 2%.
- Kto12 will facilitate mutual recognition of Filipino graduates and professionals in other countries.
- A better educated society provides a sound foundation for long-term socio-economic development.
The Kto12 Curriculum will produce holistically developed learners with 21st century skills
Kto12 curriculum is designed to develop a learner who possess a healthy
mind and body; has a solid moral and spiritual grounding; has essential
knowledge and skills for lifelong learning and self-actualization;
engages in critical thinking and creative problem solving; contributes
to the development of a progressive, just, and humane society; is proud
to be a Filipino; and appreciates the beauty around him/her and cares
for the environment for a sustainable future.
Kto12 curriculum will be seamless and continuous, decongested and
enriched, research-based and learnercentered. It will also put an
emphasis on the role of cocurricular activities and community
involvement in maximizing learning.
will be integrated into the basic education system, which is a bold
step toward making all Grade 1 students a reader.
high school will be in alignment with the 21st century skills and
college readiness standards of CHED. The curriculum will focus on the
core subjects, namely, Math, Science and English with electives that are
sensitive and responsive to the learners' interest and local industry
will be accredited in their areas of specializations which include
Academics, Technical-Vocational, and Sports and Arts.
Education agencies will ensure a smooth transition to the Kto12 program
CHED, and TESDA are crafting a strategy to ensure the smooth transition
from the existing 10 year education cycle to the Kto12 basic education
cycle. This will cover aspects such as physical infrastructure,
manpower, organizational, and structural changes.
private partnerships with higher education institutions (HEIs) and
private schools are being explored to manage the SY 2016-2018 period
wherein there will be low enrollment for HEIs.
for senior high school will also be implemented in selected schools to
simulate the transition process and provide concrete data for the
modeling activity will also generate insights on the potential needed
changes in the organizational structure of DepED as well other affected
agencies like CHED and TESDA.